icon flag ligand

Virus, bacteria and cells

Monitor the avidity of cell-cell interactions and uptake of bacteria or virus

The concept of ligand is not limited to molecules. In fact, as long as the compound is labeled and in solution it can even be a living or semi-living thing, such as a cell, bacteria or virus. Monitor multivalent binding and investigate the impact of e.g. pH, peptide presentation or presence of additional compounds in the medium.


Key applications

  • Study uptake and retention of viral particles or bacteria
  • Validate bispecific molecules (cell – bispecific binder – cell)
  • Compare engagement of immune cells with target cells (e.g. CAR T-cells)


Adenovirus with hexon Tat-PTD modification exhibits increased therapeutic effect in experimental neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors.
Yu D, Jin C, Leja J, Majdalani N, Nilsson B, Eriksson F, Essand M.
J Virol. 2011. 85(24):13114-13123.

Helicobacter pylori adapts to chronic infection and gastric disease via pH-Responsive BabA-mediated adherence.
Bugaytsova JA et al.
Cell Host Microbe. 2017. 21(3):376-389.

Potent Fc Receptor Signaling by IgA Leads to Superior Killing of Cancer Cells by Neutrophils Compared to IgG.
Brandsma AM, Bondza S, Evers M, Koutstaal R, Nederend M, Jansen M, Rösner T, Valerius T, Leusen JHW, Broeke T.
Front Imm. 2019. 10:704.